Holt & Bossler (2015) summarize Wall’s categories of cybercrime typology which address four areas, out of these I personally believe that the one which deserves the most attention is Cyber-Trespass. Trespass in itself encompasses certain elements such as intentionally entering or remaining on someone else’s property without authorization (Gillespie, n.d). Now when we apply this to cyberspace it looks at several different aspects. “Web page hacks, spam email, and network break-ins, though technically very different in nature” all have one common element and that is that its trespass in cyberspace (Adida, Chang, Fletcher, Hong, Page, & Sandon, 1998). Holt & Bossler (2015) define it as “the act of crossing invisible, yet established, boundaries of ownership in an online environment”.
As pointed out by Adida et al. (1998) this usually encompasses some sort of hack or malware attack on computer networks to gain access. As more and more advances are made in technology we have newer and more advanced operating systems. Unfortunately, many of these systems come with security holes that grow every day. Intentional hackers find their way into logging unto machines remotely and implement numerous other attacks and programs that implement and automate other attacks. Breaking into this invisible space in the online environment is in itself illegal, and different state, federal, and national laws dictate their own grounds. However, what makes this cybercrime typology category even more dangerous is its expanding reaches to other cybercrimes.
Typically a person who is guilty of cyber trespass without authorization, and intentionally gaining access to computer systems has a high intent to commit another crime in violation of already established laws. This can lead to other cybercrime categories such as cyber deception and theft; cyber violence which may also lead to cyber pornography and obscenity. Essentially, this one area is directly or indirectly related and touches the basis with the other cybercrime typology categories.
A simple hack may give a person access to credit card information which in turn may lead to the use of committing fraud. Moreover, accessing personal or organizational data and files may lead to digital piracy through sharing with others. Not to mention, if the person is deviant in nature and finds illicit personal photos or videos of the victim and then shares them on the web it may cause other types of harm such as emotional and physical on the victim. Such instances can even lead to cyberbullying and promote cyberstalking by other deviant individuals. This has an evergrowing list of effects that it may cause such harassment on the individual, sexual deviance turned into pornography and other harmful effects on the individual or group of individuals.
Ultimately, I believe this is the category that needs the utmost attention for the reasons mentioned above. Raw, technical skills by individuals may turn into malicious hacks which lead to other substantial harm against individuals, businesses, and governments. It may cause businesses and government financial losses, trade secret losses, and emotional and physical harm on others while promoting more deviant acts. This is why cyber-trespass is not as simple as it may seem and requires top priority.
Adida, B., Chang, E., Fletcher, L., Hong, M., Page, K., & Sandon, L. (1998). The Future of Trespass and Property in Cyberspace. Retrieved from https://groups.csail.mit.edu/mac/classes/6.805/student-papers/fall98-papers/trespass/final.html
Gillespie, J. (n.d). Criminal Trespassing Law. Retrieved from https://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/criminal-trespassing-law.html
Holt, T., & Bossler, A. (2015). Cybercrime in Progress: Theory and Prevention of Technology-Enabled Offenses. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group